The negotiation process
The convention on biological biodiversity (CBD)
The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), which was signed by 150 heads of government at the Rio Summit in 1992, provides a global framework for action on biodiversity. It has 3 main objectives:
- Conservation of biological diversity
- The fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising from the use of genetic resources
- Sustainable use of components of biological diversity
The Convention on Biological Diversity recognises that biological diversity is about more than plants, animals, and micro-organisms and their ecosystems – it is about people and their need for food security, medicine, fresh air and water, shelter, and a clean and healthy environment in which to live.
This convention therefore is aligned with the 17 Sustainable Development Goals of the United Nations.
The post-2020 global framework
In 2010, the 193 states party to the Convention on Biological Diversity adopted a strategic plan of action with 20 targets to be achieved by 2020 (Aichi Targets), a protocol on access and benefit-sharing from the use of genetic resources (Nagoya Protocol), and a financing strategy to increase international public aid for biodiversity. Despite the commitments made by states, the loss of biodiversity continues and the report published in 2019 by the IPBES is a wake-up call to decision-makers so that concrete actions can be taken to stem biodiversity decline by 2030 and contribute to its recovery by 2050. During the fifteenth meeting of the Conference of the Parties (COP15) to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), the post-2020 global biodiversity framework has been adopted as a steppingstone towards the 2050 Vision of “Living in Harmony with Nature”.