By 2030, Uganda is transitioning to a low carbon development pathway and has resilient forest landscapes, wildlife populations and freshwater ecosystems that support biodiversity and socioeconomic transformation.




15 october 2020

Rider Hotel in Kampala, Uganda

The project launch was presided over by the national Minister of Water and Environment and attended by representatives of the various stakeholders: sectoral ministries, government agencies, the private sector and CSOs. The project launch was followed by the formation of the project steering committee which, as the main governing body, plays a key role in overseeing the implementation of the activities of the BIODEV2030 project and in the taking of strategic and operational decisions.

Members of the project steering committee and other stakeholders during one of the meetings to review draft report on drivers of biodiversity decline in Uganda.


Uganda is one out of ten of the most biodiverse countries in Africa (Butler, 2016). It counts 1,742 known terrestrial vertebrate species, 4,816 plant species and 600 fish species. With 24 different natural vegetation types, the country’s landscapes alternate between grassland through alpine vegetation.

Despite 722 formally recognised protected areas, the Ugandan biodiversity has been declining since 1995, mainly because of land use changes and habitat modifications. Both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems are negatively impacted by economic activities, leading to phenomenon such as the eutrophication and sediment load in water bodies.

Central forests are notably vulnerable, like Mabira and Bugoma forests testify through sugar cane plantations. The deterioration of these ecosystems leads to concrete facts in terms of ecosystem services : extreme rainfall events are not anymore sufficiently captured by forests, woodlands or bushlands and the hydrological cycles are shortened in some geographical areas.

Historically, illegal activities from rural communities combined with counter-productive government policies lead to an uncontrolled rural development and conflictual accesses to natural resources.

4,5 hectares

Area of forest and woodland converted to other uses since 1990, including agriculture and charcoal (NFA, 2015)


number of threatened species in 2020 according to the IUCN red list. There were 248 in 2009.


Source : STAR analysis.

Annual & perennial non-timber crops
Logging & wood harvesting
Livestock farming & ranching
Fire & fire suppression
Recreational activities

Key Points

In the Key Biodiversity Areas (KBAs) and their buffer surroundings, the creation of ecological corridors or the restoration of habitats need to be tackled coherently with climate smart planning recommandations.

Governance is a key issue in order to promote environmental stewardship in Uganda.

Coordinated protection policies could ensure and safeguard a long-term perspective for biodiversity conservation, through controlled land uses and socio-environmental measures. 

  • Agriculture (subsistence farmland and plantations)
  • Energy and charcoal

Policy brief – Recommendations to mainstream biodiversity into economic sectors in Uganda (EN)

Reports – In-depth sectoral analysis and commitments’ identification for biodiversity in Uganda (EN)

Access to all documentary resources OF uganda